It is also the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada after English , French , Mandarin and Cantonese. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors  of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada , which means "Land of the Five Rivers". The historical Punjab region , now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River , is a tributary of another, the Sutlej. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi developed from this Prakrit.
Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A. Arabic and Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi.
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Later, it was lexically influenced by Portuguese and English , though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. However, in India , English words in the official language are more widespread than Hindi. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan , the eleventh -most widely spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries. It is the provincial language in the Punjab Province. Beginning with the census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which could explain the apparent decrease.
Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab. It is additional official in Haryana and Delhi. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language. Punjabi official language based on the Majhi. Shahpuri dialect also known as Sargodha dialect is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. It is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha and Khushab Districts and also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts.
It is mainly spoken on western end of Indus River to Chenab river crossing Jhelum river.
Malwai is spoken in the southern part of Indian Punjab and also in Bahawalnagar and Vehari districts of Pakistan. Malwa is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana , viz. Ambala , Hissar], Narnaul etc.
Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name. Doabi is spoken in both the Indian Punjab as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab owing to post migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej in the region called Doaba. Regions it is presently spoken in include the Jalandhar , Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala districts in Indian Punjab, specifically in the areas known as the Dona and Manjki , as well as the Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad districts in Pakistan Punjab where the dialect is known as Faisalabadi Punjabi.
Puadh is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The Puadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj to beyond the Ghaggar river in the east up to Kala Amb, which is at the border of the states of Himachal pradesh and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Puadh. The Puadhi dialect is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana.
Jatki or Jangli is a dialect of native tribes of areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar' derived from jungle bar before irrigation system arrived in the start of the 20th century, for example, Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar. Native people called their dialect as Jatki instead of Jangli.
West of Chenaab river in Jhang district of Pakistani Punjab the dialect of Jhangochi merges with Thalochi and resultant dialect is Chenavari. Name is derived from Chenaab river. The peripheral vowels have nasal analogues. Punjabi is a tonal language and in many words there is a choice of up to three tones, high-falling, low-rising, and level neutral :   .
Some writers describe this as a fourth tone. The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel. The Gurmukhi script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time.
Essay on Punjabi Language ( Words)
Some other languages in Pakistan have also been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski , Gujari , Hindko , Kalami , Shina , and Torwali. Punjabi has a canonical word order of SOV subject—object—verb. Adjectives , when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. Upon the inflectional case is built a system of particles known as postpositions , which parallel English 's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case , and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies.
Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a single inflectional suffix, and is often followed by successive layers of elements like auxiliary verbs and postpositions to the right of the lexical base. The grammar of the Punjabi language concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language. The Punjabi language is written in multiple alphabets a phenomenon known as synchronic digraphia : Gurmukhi , a Brahmic script , is used by Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus ;  Devanagari , also a Brahmic script , is also used by some Punjabi Hindus,     though identification of religion with script is neither absolute nor exclusive.
The Punjabi Braille is used by the visually impaired. This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore. Translation : Lahore is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi , Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is also said to be the heart of Pakistan. Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people.
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The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until that it would be recognised as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government.
After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in , the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gurdwaras , while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language.
In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan after Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan , the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in Islamabad Capital Territory.
The only two official national languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English , which are considered the lingua francas of Pakistan. When Pakistan was created in , although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the national languages.
omgujtinasa.cf The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Article of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language was given official status in after Language violence in Sindh.
Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces.
One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in with the establishment of its Punjabi Department. In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant language in film production.
Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province centred on the Lahore area are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language. The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish.
Hafiz Saeed , chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah JuD has questioned Pakistan's decision to adopt Urdu as its national language in a country where majority of people speak Punjabi language, citing his interpretation of Islamic doctrine as encouraging education in the mother-tongue. At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution ,  earned after the Punjabi Suba movement of the s.
Both federal and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab. There are vibrant Punjabi language movie and news industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the last few decades in television due to market forces. Tata Building India School Essay Competition is in line with Tata group's ethos of commitment to society and, in the coming years, our endeavour is to reach out to even greater number of schools and students across India.
To ensure a level playing field for students, the competition is conducted across two categories - Junior level for Classes and Senior level for Classes Each year a different topic on the theme of nation building is selected and participants are required to submit an essay between words.