Furthermore, he notes that Quellien's work draws heavily on the work of the French colonial department's —06 administrator, who published a work in , which to a great extent mirrors John Esposito 's The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? The first recorded use of the term in English, according to the Oxford English Dictionary , was in in an article in The Journal of Theological Studies.
The Runnymede report contrasted "open" and "closed" views of Islam, and stated that the following "closed" views are equated with Islamophobia: . These "closed" views are contrasted, in the report, with "open" views on Islam which, while founded on respect for Islam, permit legitimate disagreement, dialogue and critique. It has been suggested that Islamophobia is closely related to identity politics , and gives its adherents the perceived benefit of constructing their identity in opposition to a negative, essentialized image of Muslims.
This occurs in the form of self-righteousness, assignment of blame and key identity markers.
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It views culture as an entity that is highly abstracted from the practices of daily life and therefore represents the illusion that there exists a spirit of the people. This formulation leads to the homogenisation of cultural identity and the ascription of particular values and proclivities onto minority cultural groups.
She views this as an ontological trap that hinders the perception of culture as something "materially situated in the living practices of the everyday, situated in time-space and not based in abstract projections of what constitutes either a particular tradition or culture.
Muslim Discrimination in America Essay
In some societies, Islamophobia has materialized due to the portrayal of Islam and Muslims as the national " Other ", where exclusion and discrimination occurs on the basis of their religion and civilization which differs with national tradition and identity. Examples include Pakistani and Algerian migrants in Britain and France respectively. Brown and Miles write that another feature of Islamophobic discourse is to amalgamate nationality e. The two-way stereotyping resulting from Islamophobia has in some instances resulted in mainstreaming of earlier controversial discourses, such as liberal attitudes towards gender equality   and homosexuals.
The academics S. Sayyid and Abdoolkarim Vakil maintain that Islamophobia is a response to the emergence of a distinct Muslim public identity globally, the presence of Muslims in itself not being an indicator of the degree of Islamophobia in a society. Sayyid and Vakil maintain that there are societies where virtually no Muslims live but many institutionalized forms of Islamophobia still exist in them.
Matti Bunzl has argued that there are important differences between Islamophobia and antisemitism. While antisemitism was a phenomenon closely connected to European nation-building processes, he sees Islamophobia as having the concern of European civilization as its focal point. However, she argues against the use of the term Islamophobia , since, in her opinion, it attracts unwarranted attention to an underlying racist current. The head of the Media Responsibility Institute in Erlangen , Sabine Schiffer, and researcher Constantin Wagner, who also define Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism, outline additional similarities and differences between Islamophobia and antisemitism.
In addition, both discourses make use of, among other rhetorical instruments, "religious imperatives" supposedly "proven" by religious sources, and conspiracy theories. The differences between Islamophobia and antisemitism consist of the nature of the perceived threats to the "Christian West". Muslims are perceived as "inferior" and as a visible "external threat", while on the other hand, Jews are perceived as "omnipotent" and as an invisible "internal threat".
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However, Schiffer and Wagner also note that there is a growing tendency to view Muslims as a privileged group that constitute an "internal threat" and that this convergence between the two discources makes "it more and more necessary to use findings from the study of anti-Semitism to analyse Islamophobia". Schiffer and Wagner conclude,. The achievement in the study of anti-Semitism of examining Jewry and anti-Semitism separately must also be transferred to other racisms, such as Islamophobia.
We do not need more information about Islam, but more information about the making of racist stereotypes in general. The publication Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives describes Islamophobia as the new form of racism in Europe,  arguing that "Islamophobia is as much a form of racism as anti-semitism , a term more commonly encountered in Europe as a sibling of racism, xenophobia and Intolerance.
According to a report by a UK anti-racism group, counter-jihadist outfits in Europe and North America are becoming more cohesive by forging alliances, with groups now identified as promoting an Islamophobic agenda. In their American Muslim Poll , the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that when it came to their Islamophobia index see Public Opinion , they found that those who scored higher on the index, i.
Mohamed Nimer compares Islamophobia with anti-Americanism. He argues that while both Islam and America can be subject to legitimate criticisms without detesting a people as a whole, bigotry against both are on the rise. According to Gabrielle Maranci, the increasing Islamophobia in the West is related to a rising repudiation of multiculturalism. Maranci concludes that "Islamophobia is a 'phobia' of multiculturalism and the transruptive effect that Islam can have in Europe and the West through transcultural processes.
According to Elizabeth Poole in the Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies , the media have been criticized for perpetrating Islamophobia. She cites a case study examining a sample of articles in the British press from between and , which concluded that Muslim viewpoints were underrepresented and that issues involving Muslims usually depicted them in a negative light.
Such portrayals, according to Poole, include the depiction of Islam and Muslims as a threat to Western security and values. Richardson's book Mis representing Islam: the racism and rhetoric of British broadsheet newspapers , criticized the British media for propagating negative stereotypes of Muslims and fueling anti-Muslim prejudice. In , Mehdi Hasan in the New Statesman criticized Western media for over-reporting a few Islamist terrorist incidents but under-reporting the much larger number of planned non-Islamist terrorist attacks carried out by "non-Irish white folks".
The obituary in The Guardian for the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci described her as "notorious for her Islamaphobia" [sic]. Unlike the relationship of a buyer and a seller, it is a relationship of mutual benefit, where ideologies and political proclivities converge to advance the same agenda.
Some media outlets are working explicitly against Islamophobia. Following the attacks of 11 September , the Islamic Society of Britain 's "Islam Awareness Week" and the "Best of British Islam Festival" were introduced to improve community relations and raise awareness about Islam. There are growing instances of Islamophobia in Hindi cinema, or Bollywood , in films such as Aamir , New York and My Name is Khan , which corresponds to a growing anti-minorities sentiment that followed the resurgence of the Hindu right.
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It was formed in to oppose what it considers to be a spread of Islamism, Sharia law and Islamic extremism in the UK. Furthermore, the 7 July London bombings and the resulting efforts of the British civil and law enforcement authorities to help seek British Muslims' help in identifying potential threats to create prevention is observed by Michael Lavalette as institutionalized Islamophobia.
Lavalette alleges that there is a continuity between the former two British governments over prevention that aims to stop young Muslim people from being misled, misdirected and recruited by extremists who exploit grievances for their own "jihadist" endeavors. Asking and concentrating on Muslim communities and young muslims to prevent future instances, by the authorities, is in itself Islamophobia as such since involvement of Muslim communities will highlight and endorse their compassion for Britain and negate the perceived threats from within their communities.
The statements featured in this chart were asked to participants who then responded on a scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The total percentage of those who answered agree and strongly agree are depicted as follows Note: the phrase "W. Question 1: "I want to live in a country where no one is targeted for their religious identity.
Question 2: "The negative things politicians say regarding Muslims is harmful to our country. Question 3: "Most Muslims living in the United States are no more responsible for violence carried out by a Muslim than anyone else. Question 4: "Most Muslims living in the United States are victims of discrimination because of their faith. Islamophobia has become a topic of increasing sociological and political importance.
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Vertovec concludes: "As the public sphere shifts to provide a more prominent place for Muslims, Islamophobic tendencies may amplify. Patel, Humphries, and Naik claim that "Islamophobia has always been present in Western countries and cultures. In the last two decades, it has become accentuated, explicit and extreme. Sardar argued that Europe is "post-colonial, but ambivalent. Wolfram Richter, professor of economics at Dortmund University of Technology , told Sardar: "I am afraid we have not learned from our history.
My main fear is that what we did to Jews we may now do to Muslims. The next holocaust would be against Muslims. In Salma Yaqoob , a Respect Party Councillor, claimed that Muslims in Britain were "subject to attacks reminiscent of the gathering storm of anti-Semitism in the first decades of the last century. Associate Professor Deepa Kumar writes that "Islamophobia is about politics rather than religion per se"  and that modern-day demonization of Arabs and Muslims by US politicians and others is racist and Islamophobic, and employed in support of what she describes as an unjust war.
About the public impact of this rhetoric, she says that "One of the consequences of the relentless attacks on Islam and Muslims by politicians and the media is that Islamophobic sentiment is on the rise.
Doing so "allows us to remove it from the hands of 'culture' or from the myth of a single creator or progenitor, whether it be a person, organisation or community. A January British Social Attitudes Survey found that the British public "is far more likely to hold negative views of Muslims than of any other religious group,"  with "just one in four" feeling "positively about Islam," and a "majority of the country would be concerned if a mosque was built in their area, while only 15 per cent expressed similar qualms about the opening of a church.
The author of the report said that "The hate that these groups are funding and inciting is having real consequences like attacks on mosques all over the country and new laws discriminating against Muslims in America. Islamophobia has consequences. In the United States, religious discrimination against Muslims has become a significant issues of concern.
Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11
In , The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that out of the groups studied, Muslims are the most likely faith community to experience religious discrimination, the data having been that way since Data on types of hate crimes have been collected by the U. Hate crime offenses include crimes against persons such as assaults and against property such as arson , and are classified by various race-based, religion-based, and other motivations. The data show that recorded anti-Islamic hate crimes in the United States jumped dramatically in Anti-Islamic hate crimes then subsided, but continued at a significantly higher pace than in pre years.
The step up is in contrast to decreases in total hate crimes and to the decline in overall crime in the U. Specifically, the FBI's annual hate crimes statistics reports from to document average numbers of anti-Islamic offenses at 31 per year before , then a leap to in the year of attacks , and averaging per since. Among those offenses are anti-Islamic arson incidents which have a similar pattern: arson incidents averaged. In contrast, the overall numbers of arson and total offenses declined from pre to post There have also been reports of hate crimes targeting Muslims across Europe.
These incidents have increased after terrorist attacks by extremist groups such as ISIL.
follow site Islamophobia in Poland has emerged following the migrant crisis. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding. Incidents consisted of verbal abuse, blaming all Muslims for terrorism , forcibly removing women's hijabs , spitting on Muslims, calling children " Osama ", and random assaults. A number of Muslims were hospitalized and in one instance paralyzed.
Inherent negativity, stereotypical images, fantastical representations, and exaggerated caricatures were all identified. The report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated. Professor in History of Religion, Anne Sophie Roald, states that Islamophobia was recognized as a form of intolerance alongside xenophobia and antisemitism at the "Stockholm International Forum on Combating Intolerance",  held in January The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation , in its 5th report to Islamophobia Observatory of , found an "institutionalization and legitimization of the phenomenon of Islamophobia" in the West over the previous five years.